Civil contractor in Kochi for Plumbing needs
In our series of blogs, we have already seen how a civil contractor in Kochi handles carpentry, wiring, painting, roofing, flooring and foundation for constructions in Kerala. In this article, we take a look at plumbing basics and why it is important to consider the same during building construction.
To keep things flowing smoothly in your home, it is important to maintain an efficient plumbing system.
Plumbing is a skilled job which requires good experience and precision planning. It carries fluids and uses tanks, pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures etc to carry the fluids.
Plumbing system serves two purposes.
- Potable water delivery for human use.
- Waste removal (Drainage) using a drainage system.
The plumbing system consists of a store of water which is then delivered to various outlets through a distribution system. A plumbing contractor’s job involves selection of right equipment, determining pipe size requirements, and load calculations, design of potable, hot water and sewage systems to ensure trouble free plumbing system for your dream home.
Making the right choice of Pipes for Plumbing
Plumbing requires meticulous planning and high skilled execution. It involves laying pipes of various diameters for water supply and sewage water collection. The type of pipes used for various applications differ. The materials and fabrication process used for water pipes may not be same as sewer pipes. A thorough understanding of requirements of the structure is necessary to arrive at the suitable piping systems.
Types of Pipes Used for Plumbing Works
Different types of pipes such as Plastic Pipes, Metallic Pipes and Cement Pipes are used for plumbing works. However, Metallic pipes and cement pipes are not used for residential applications.
Plastic pipes have many advantages such as lower cost, lighter weight, resistance to fracture, water tight joints, availability in longer lengths, allows smoother flow with reduced friction and resistance etc. They are made of non toxic, safe material which will not rust or corrode. Plastic pipes’ insulative quality, prevents condensation from forming on pipes carrying cold water; and also helps reduce heat loss through pipes carrying hot water. They are also easy to install and maintain, hard wearing and are very adaptable. These pipes are not suitable for the area which is very hot.
PVC, CPVC and UPVC are the most popular type of plastic pipes.
Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC): PVC is a thermoplastic polymer pipe. PVC can be used for a wide number of applications. They can withstand higher temperatures and is used for hot water piping.
Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride (CPVC): CPVC is a thermoplastic pipe produced by the chlorination of PVC resin. CPVC is mostly used for hot and cold water pipes, as well as industrial liquid handling.
Unplasticized Poly Vinyl Chloride (UPVC): These pipes are stiff or rigid, thus applicable in the construction industry. UPVC pipes are the best hygienic medium for fluid transportation because of its excellent resistance against contamination.
Drainage is an important aspect of plumbing where waste water from the house is disposed of through proper channels. Both grey water (from showers, kitchen sinks, basins, washing machines etc.) and black water (sewage from water closets and urinals) need to be drained out. 100 mm diameter pipes are normally used for sewage and 75 mm pipes for grey water. When run horizontally, sewage water pipes should be at a steeper slope as they carry solids. These pipes can be of cast iron, and nowadays PVC is also used.
Drainage Pipes and Plumbing Design. If the plumbing design is not properly designed, there are many complications that can arise with the drainage system.
5 Facts to Bear in Mind while designing a Drainage system
- There may not be sufficient space to conceal pipes, so they need to be surface mounted.
- Floor joists may not be deep enough to accommodate the proper amount of gradient.
- Pipe runs may be much longer and more complicated than necessary.
- Drain and pipe noises could cause a disturbance.
- If a drainage system under a concrete slab floor is not accurately designed, it could be extremely difficult – even impossible – to move drains later.
Related reading: Roof leaks and waterproofing
5 Key Points to Remember when Designing the Plumbing System
It is important to follow some guidelines while designing the plumbing system at the construction stage itself to save you from dealing with plumbing issues later.
(A) Inspection Chambers
All underground drainage systems must have access points, to enable the drains to be inspected on a regular basis and to be cleaned in the event of a blockage. The most common form of access is an inspection chamber, often still referred to as a manhole. Inspection chambers should be provided whenever a branch pipe joins a main drainage run.
- Spacing of inspection chambers and manholes should be done in such a way that cleaning of sewer lines can be done easily.
- Inlets and outlets of chambers and manholes should be plugged during the progress of the plumbing work. It should remain plugged till completion of the sewer lines up to disposal so as to avoid blockage / choke-up of sewer pipeline.
- Ensure that the gully’s/channels of inspection chambers/manholes are provided with a smooth curve if sewer lines are intersecting at right angles.
- Bottom of gully’s/channels should be laid in a slope at inlet to outlet of chambers and should have a smooth finish.
- All sewer pipes, traps and other fittings should be checked prior to being put into use to ensure that they are free from cracks, holes and burrs etc..
- Outflow of chamber should have 25 mm (1”) drop than in flow of chamber.
- Joints of sewer pipes should be plugged with cotton yarn (packing rassi) before applying cement slurry over joints.
- Heavy-duty chamber covers are to be used in parking and on roads whereas light duty covers may be used for other places. The covers used in manholes in sewer lines shall invariably bear the word, ‘SEWER’ on the top and those used for storm water drains shall bear the word ‘STORM’.
(B) Soil Waste & Rain Water (SWR) Drainage System
It is important to be aware of key things that would help you to manage your SWR drainage system running in a smooth manner. The following guidelines for joining pipes are to be followed to avoid complications from leakages.
- Use only rubber lubricant for joining SWR pipes & fittings, where rubber ring is used.
- Avoid misalignment of vertical SWR pipe stacks and incorrect spacing of pipe clips.
- All entry to main stacks should be protected with water seal trap, wherever there is mixing of soil & waste lines.
- Keep a gap of 10 mm between all UV stabilized SWR pipes and fittings to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction of pipes for longer life of the system.
- Smoke test should be avoided and test plug / socket plug should be used for testing the lines.
- Horizontal lines within bathrooms should be cement encased and tested before compacting of sunken floors to avoid any accidental damages.
- When cutting pipes make sure they are cut square. Chamfer the cut end to an angle of 150 with a medium file.
- A correct depth of entry of the spigot into the socket is required to allow the thermal movement. To achieve this, push spigot fully into the socket (remove sealing ring at this time) and make a mark on the spigot. Withdraw the spigot by 10 mm & mark the spigot with a bold line. This bold mark indicates the correct depth of entry to allow the necessary expansion gap.
- Smear rubber lubricant evenly on the chamfered spigot and the sealing ring. Then insert the spigot into socket with light twisting motion. Pull out the pipe to allow 10 mm expansion gap.
Tubes installed underground, laid on floors or in other inaccessible places must be able to withstand twice the maximum working pressure.
- While laying big pipelines, provision should be made for expansion joints, air vents and proper anchorage. In case of longer runs provide air valves at all higher points of ground and the size of the valves should be ¼th of the main line.
- For large diameter and higher class pipes (6 kg / cm2 and above) always use heavy-duty solvent cement. Within 24 hours, the rigid PVC pipes would be ready for use.
- Testing Non-Pressure Installation above Ground – The SWR drainage system can be put to use immediately after installation, as no waiting time is required for joints to be set and dried. However for testing, seal hermetically all openings below the top of the section to be tested. The water level shall then be raised to a height of not less than 3 meter above the highest point of the section being tested. Every joint shall be carefully examined for leaks.
(C) Duct & High Level Pipe work
- Pipe work in ducts and voids shall be supported from specially designed mild steel brackets and cantilevers with swinging hangers. Roller type supports and ‘U’ bolt clips shall be used.
- The brackets shall be provided and fixed to the sidewalls, beams and ceilings, where a bracket or support carries more than one pipe of different sizes, the spacing of the brackets or supports shall be that which is specified for the smallest size of pipe.
- All pipes must be kept at least 150 mm from lighting and power cables or conduits.
- Pipes shall be spaced in ducts and below floors in a manner, which will permit subsequent access to any pipe for maintenance or removal without disturbance to the remaining pipes.
- All piping shall be grouped wherever practical and shall be erected to present a neat appearance. Pipes shall be parallel to each other and fixed at right angles to structural members and shall give maximum possible headroom. All pipe drops shall be truly vertical.
- All pipes must be supported in such a manner so as to allow free movement for expansion and contraction and graded to the required levels for air elimination and drainage.
(D) Pressure Test for Water Leakage
When building your home, it is a requirement to test all of the various components including the plumbing system. The pipes should be in working order to avoid costly repairs after all the finishing work is completed and the home is occupied. Testing would help catch potential plumbing leakages before finishing the home’s construction works. Testing water distribution lines under normal operation and pressure are the most common and easiest method to check for leakages and bends. This test is done; preferably, when all the piping and joints are visible and before underground supplies are backfilled. The wrong pipe fittings can lead to many problems like:
- Unwanted flow restrictions and
- Extra cost
Pressure test should once again be performed after tiling and fitting of sanitary equipments.
(E) Use of Traps in Plumbing System
Traps are used to collect debris which may form a clog deep within the plumbing system and to stop sewer gases passing into the home. In most homes, there is a P-trap installed under the sinks in the bathroom and kitchens. A good plumbing system uses appropriate traps in kitchen, toilets, bathrooms, sinks etc.
Viya Constructions – Your preferred civil contractor in Kochi
From the above factors it is evident that a proper plumbing system design is a vital component of a building’s structure. But accuracy and meticulousness are especially critical when it comes to drainage. That is why it’s so important to partner with a good civil contractor with a keen eye for details, necessary to keep problems from cropping up in the long run. A well-designed plumbing system will not just be durable, efficient and minimize noise; it will also ensure that the water is safe.
Viya Constructions, the preferred civil contractor in Kochi has highly trained plumbing technicians who are committed to assist you all your plumbing needs. Our core strength lies with our engineering team which includes Civil, Electrical and Plumbing. Co-ordination of these departments is very much essential for the successful completion of any building.No job is too large or too small for us and we have the tools, knowledge, and expertise to install, upgrade, replace, or repair and detect leaks in your indoor plumbing.
Call us now for a free quote on any of your civil contractor needs in Kochi.